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by Brian Porter

  • ISBN: 0195131460
  • Category: Other
  • Author: Brian Porter
  • Subcategory: Humanities
  • Other formats: lrf rtf docx txt
  • Language: English
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press; 1 edition (February 24, 2000)
  • Pages: 320 pages
  • FB2 size: 1166 kb
  • EPUB size: 1541 kb
  • Rating: 4.2
  • Votes: 597
Download When Nationalism Began to Hate: Imagining Modern Politics in Nineteenth-Century Poland fb2

Series: Imagining Modern Politics in Nineteenth-Century Poland. I wish I could place "When Nationalism Began to Hate" on the required reading list of all of those who read a book that made a very big splash recently, Jan Tomasz Gross' "Neighbors

Series: Imagining Modern Politics in Nineteenth-Century Poland. Paperback: 320 pages. Publisher: Oxford University Press (January 10, 2002). I wish I could place "When Nationalism Began to Hate" on the required reading list of all of those who read a book that made a very big splash recently, Jan Tomasz Gross' "Neighbors. Though I'm sure Gross did not intend this, "Neighbors," and the flood of media that accompanied its release, encouraged the stereotype of Poles as mindless, inherently anti-Semitic, brutes.

Porter focuses on nineteenth-century Poland, tracing the transformation of revolutionary patriotism into a violent anti-Semitic ideology

Porter focuses on nineteenth-century Poland, tracing the transformation of revolutionary patriotism into a violent anti-Semitic ideology.

Home Browse Books Book details, When Nationalism Began to Hate: Imagining Modern. With this book, Porter offers readers a new explanation for the emergence of xenophobic, authoritarian nationalism in Europe

Home Browse Books Book details, When Nationalism Began to Hate: Imagining Modern. When Nationalism Began to Hate: Imagining Modern Politics in Nineteenth Century Poland. With this book, Porter offers readers a new explanation for the emergence of xenophobic, authoritarian nationalism in Europe. Focusing on 19th-century Poland, he traces the transformation of revolutionary patriotism into a violent anti-Semitic ideology.

With this book, Porter offers readers a new explanation for the emergence of xenophobic, authoritarian nationalism in Europe.

In When Nationalism Began to Hate, Brian Porter offers a challenging new explanation for the emergence of xenophobic, authoritarian nationalism in Europe. He begins by examining the common assumption that nationalist movements by nature draw lines of inclusion and exclusion around social groups, establishing authority and hierarchy among ones own and antagonism towards others. Porter argues instead that the penetration of communal hatred and social discipline into the rhetoric of nationalism must be explained, not merely assumed.

September 2001 · The Journal of Modern History. January 2002 · Journal of Interdisciplinary History. When Nationalism Began to Hate: Imagining Politics in Nineteenth-Century Poland. William Lee Blackwood. When Nationalism Began to Hate.

Journal of Interdisciplinary History . Journal of Interdisciplinary History. In this regard, Porter succeeds in doing what all East European specialists should strive to accomplish now that the artificial political division between Eastern and Western Europe has fallen by the wayside: formulating and tackling questions that are relevant for Europe as a whole.

Defenestration as Ritual Punishment: Windows, Power, and Political Culture in Early Modern Europe. An Identity of Opinion: Historians and July 1914.

When Nationalism Began to Hate: Imagining Modern Politics in Nineteenth-Century Poland. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-515187-9.

It was one of the leading journals of the Polish positivist movement. Many of the most renowned Polish writers published their novels in Głos, which also became a tribune of the naturalist literary movement of late 19th century. During the Revolution of 1905 it was closed down by tsarist authorities. When Nationalism Began to Hate: Imagining Modern Politics in Nineteenth-Century Poland. Kulak, Teresa; Krzysztof Kawalec (January 1993).

In When Nationalism Began to Hate, Brian Porter offers a challenging new explanation for the emergence of xenophobic, authoritarian nationalism in Europe. He begins by examining the common assumption that nationalist movements by nature draw lines of inclusion and exclusion around social groups, establishing authority and hierarchy among "one's own" and antagonism towards "others." Porter argues instead that the penetration of communal hatred and social discipline into the rhetoric of nationalism must be explained, not merely assumed. Porter focuses on nineteenth-century Poland, tracing the transformation of revolutionary patriotism into a violent anti-Semitic ideology. Instead of deterministically attributing this change to the "forces of modernization," Porter demonstrates that the language of hatred and discipline was central to the way "modernity" itself was perceived by fin-de-siècle intellectuals. The book is based on a wide variety of sources, including political speeches and posters, newspaper articles and editorials, underground brochures, published and unpublished memoirs, personal letters, and nineteenth-century books on history, sociology, and politics. It embeds nationalism within a much broader framework, showing how the concept of "the nation" played a role in liberal, conservative, socialist, and populist thought. When Nationalism Began to Hate is not only a detailed history of Polish nationalism but also an ambitious study of how the term "nation" functioned within the political imagination of "modernity." It will prove an important text for a wide range of students and researchers of European history and politics.
Reviews about When Nationalism Began to Hate: Imagining Modern Politics in Nineteenth-Century Poland (2):
Grosho
Porter’s chief argument is that the nineteenth century Polish nationalist movement transformed from an ideology of tolerance to an ideology of hate due to the abandonment of a belief that their goals will be achieved in, as Porter puts it, historical time. Another way to interpret Porter’s concept of historical time is to think of it in terms of destiny. Porter describes the evolution of the nationalist parties of Poland, starting with the romantics, then moving on to the Warsaw positivists, the niepokorni (meaning defiant ones in Polish), and ultimately ending with the National Democrats. Both the romantics and the positivists believed that, with time, Poland would naturally homogenize itself and become more Polish—something akin to America’s idea of a melting pot. In contrast, the niepokorni and the National Democrats “perceived no destiny; they saw only synchronic social space in which each nation had to act for its own self-defense" (182). To put it succinctly, the abandonment of historical time led to the embrace of ideologies of hatred.

Although all the aforementioned nationalist parties began as liberal or "left", the National Democratic party switched to the "right" as their reality became “a world in which justice, rights, humanity, progress, peace, and brotherhood were naïve fantasies, and in which oppression, expansion, and conflict defined international relations” (157-58). As a result of this switch, ideas of antisemitism, chauvinism, and authoritarianism became more popular among nationalists. As Porter puts it, “the National Democrats… embraced an unmitigated, unending war of all against all. In the process they constructed high walls of exclusion around the Polish nation, with solidarity and authority inside and hatred and violence outside” (158). To briefly summarize, When Nationalism Began to Hate traces the evolution of national movements within Poland and reveals the correspondence between the emergence of ideologies of hate and the abandonment of historical time.
It's so easy
"When Nationalism Began to Hate" is an excellent book. The title is a bit sensationalistic and a bit misleading.

WNBtH is a history of eighteenth century Polish nationalism. It is an attempt to answer the question: Why is it that decent Poles, and certainly decent Polish Catholics, in the 1880s, could not and did not publicly support an anti-Semitic brand of nationalism, and yet by the 1930s, this had changed -- Polish Nationalism and Polish Catholicism were both often openly anti-Semitic?

What happened?

Porter takes the reader on a journey through the tragedies of Polish history, and the uprisings that Poles mounted to resist German and Russian colonizers' attempts to eliminate Polish identity, and the theorizing that went on behind these uprisings.

Philo-Semitism was a marked feature of Polish Romantic nationalism, and Jews did participate in the struggle for Polish freedom. Many Poles saw Jews as an integral part of Poland. Mickiewicz created Jankiel, a Polish Jewish hero of the national epic, "Pan Tadeusz." Patriotic Jewish Poles were not just a feature of fiction; Jews like Michal Landy gave their lives in the nationalist struggle.

A feature of Mickiewicz's Romantic Nationalism was the concept of Poland as the "Christ of Nations," that would struggle for the uplift of all humanity. This wasn't just rhetoric -- Poles fought internationally. Poles like Haym Solomon, Tadeusz Kosciuszko, and Casimir Pulaski contributed to the American Revolution in this multi-national, Christian-inspired spirit.

Poland's many uprisings against Russian and German colonizers ended tragically, with the deaths and deportation of many, and even harsher attempts to stamp out Polish language and culture.

These tragedies changed Polish nationalists' views of time -- could time really result in progress? -- and what constituted a Pole. Could Lithuanians, Belorussians, Ukrainians, and Jews ever be part of a successful Polish nation state?

Peasants presented a particular problem. A popular argument stated that Polish uprisings failed because the peasants did not support them, and, in fact, had no reason to. Did it matter to them if they slaved for Poles, Austrians, or Russians? What did peasants care about Poland's literary heritage? They couldn't read. Some regarded peasants as inherently lesser creatures, perhaps inferior because of reincarnation.

Similar questions were asked about Jews and other ethnic minorities.

The answers that Poles, struggling with a highly multi-cultural, multi-faith population, came up with are fascinating, and speak to the mult-cultural, multi-faith world many of us live in today. One can hear echoes on nightly news discussions of how to address Spanish speaking, or Muslim, immigrants to the US.

Porter emphasizes that there is nothing inherently Polish, or Catholic, or Polish-Catholic, about anti-Semitism. Anti-Semitism was a development of one train of nationalist thought, a train of thought inspired by Social Darwinism and Scientific Racism.

Roman Dmowski, the proponent of this train of thought, wrote with brutality about forcing nationalism on peasants, whether they liked it or not, and forcing deportation on Poland's Jews. Dmowski stated, "Every Pole should be the enemy of every German he meets."

Dmowski had suffered under colonization, and he was a trained biologist. He was influenced by Social Darwinism, and saw life as a struggle for the survival of the fittest. He wanted Poles, as he understood Poles, to survive.

Dmowski rejected Poland's Romantic Nationalism, as embodied by Mickiewicz, and Mickiewicz's multicultural, philo-Semitic view of Poland. That approach -- the Romantic approach -- was worthlessly "spiritual" in Dmowski's view, and doomed to failure. Poles and Poland needed to enter the Darwinian struggle for life, and renounce any touchy-feely notions of solidarity with others who were not ethnic Poles.

Again, though this is a scholarly book, it is a fasciating read. Porter writes well. The questions the book engages are questions we are all contemplating in our increasingly globalized world.

I wish I could place "When Nationalism Began to Hate" on the required reading list of all of those who read a book that made a very big splash recently, Jan Tomasz Gross' "Neighbors."

Though I'm sure Gross did not intend this, "Neighbors," and the flood of media that accompanied its release, encouraged the stereotype of Poles as mindless, inherently anti-Semitic, brutes.

As WNBtH shows, multi-cultural societies present a series of challenges, and that is especially true when multi-cultural societies face the added stress of foreign occupation, colonization, and attempts at the elmination of the culture being colonized.

Polish thinkers developed varied ways of dealing with their oppression, and of responding to multi-culturalism. Their words, written a century ago, have resonance for us today.

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