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by Bernard Lewis

  • ISBN: 0195053265
  • Category: Medical Books
  • Author: Bernard Lewis
  • Subcategory: Medicine
  • Other formats: azw lit txt docx
  • Language: English
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press; New ed edition (April 30, 1992)
  • Pages: 224 pages
  • FB2 size: 1360 kb
  • EPUB size: 1581 kb
  • Rating: 4.5
  • Votes: 262
Download Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry fb2

This book will foster Bernard Lewis's reputation as the doyen of Middle Eastern studies. Secondly, Lewis marvels a bit that in the Middle East there are no large communities of blacks and mulattoes, as there are in the Americas

This book will foster Bernard Lewis's reputation as the doyen of Middle Eastern studies. Mr. Lewis's knowledge of Islamic history, literature, and jurisprudence is so detailed, expansive, and profoundly integrated that it is enough for him to merely refer to a period or an instance to be able to envision the entire context. -The Washington Times. Secondly, Lewis marvels a bit that in the Middle East there are no large communities of blacks and mulattoes, as there are in the Americas. This despite the fact that the core lands of Islam imported black slaves for more than three times as long as happened in the Americas.

This book will foster Bernard Lewis's reputation as the doyen of Middle Eastern studies.

Lewis' book is an important argument in the fight for reason against progressive liberals, neo-marxists and . An interesting discussion of the place of race and slavery in the middle east that despite my reservations about the author seemed fair and relatively even handed.

Lewis' book is an important argument in the fight for reason against progressive liberals, neo-marxists and other activists. The moral of the story is told by Lewis on one of the last pages of his book: "The myth of Islamic racial innocence was a Western creation and served a Western purpose. Not for the first time, a mythologized and idealized Islam proved a stick with which to chastise Western failings.

Race and Slavery in the Middle East: an Historical Enquiry is a 1990 book written by the British historian Bernard Lewis

Race and Slavery in the Middle East: an Historical Enquiry is a 1990 book written by the British historian Bernard Lewis. The book details the Islamic history of slavery in the Middle East from its earliest incarnations until its abolition in the various countries of the region

In the ancient Middle East, as elsewhere, slavery is attested from the very earliest written records, among the Sumerians, the Babylonians, the Egyptians, and other ancient peoples. The earliest slaves, it would seem, were captives taken in warfare. Their numbers were augmented from other sources of supply. In pre-classical antiquity, most slaves appear to have been the property of kings, priests, and temples, and only a relatively small proportion were in private possession.

With 24 rare and intriguing full-color illustrations, this fascinating study describes the Middle East's culture of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice.

Much confusion and misunderstanding have been caused by the failure to recognize these changes, still more by the survival of earlier meanings when new ones have already been generally accepted ate as the midcentury, the word.

Much confusion and misunderstanding have been caused by the failure to recognize these changes, still more by the survival of earlier meanings when new ones have already been generally accepted ate as the midcentury, the word "race" was still commonly used in Europe, and occasionally in the United States, to designate what we would nowadays call an ethnic group, that is to say, a group defined primarily by linguistic and other cultural, historical, and in some sense geographical criteria

Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. In Race and Slavery in the Middle East, Bernard Lewis explores these questions and others, examining the history of slavery in law, social thought, and practice over the last two millennia.

Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. From before the days of Moses up through the 1960s, slavery was a fact of life in the Middle East. With 24 rare and intriguing full-color illustrations, this fascinating study describes the Middle East's culture of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice. Lewis demonstrates how nineteenth century Europeans mythologized the region as a racial utopia in debating American slavery.

Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them

Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. 1. Race de conquerants.

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From before the days of Moses up through the 1960s, slavery was a fact of life in the Middle East. Pagans, Jews, Christians, and Muslims bought and sold at the slave markets for millennia, trading the human plunder of wars and slave raids that reached from the Russian steppes to the African jungles. But if the Middle East was one of the last regions to renounce slavery, how do we account for its--and especially Islam's--image of racial harmony? How did these long years of slavery affect racial relations? In Race and Slavery in the Middle East, Bernard Lewis explores these questions and others, examining the history of slavery in law, social thought, and practice over the last two millennia.With 24 rare and intriguing full-color illustrations, this fascinating study describes the Middle East's culture of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice. Lewis demonstrates how nineteenth century Europeans mythologized the region as a racial utopia in debating American slavery. Islam, in fact, clearly teaches non-discrimination, but Lewis shows that prejudice often won out over pious sentiments, as he examines how Africans were treated, depicted, and thought of from antiquity to the twentieth century."If my color were pink, women would love me/But the Lord has marred me with blackness," lamented a black slave poet in Arabia over a millennium ago--and Lewis deftly draws from these lines and others the nuances of racial relations over time. Islam, he finds, restricted enslavement and greatly improved the lot of slaves--who included, until the early twentieth century, some whites--while blacks occasionally rose to power and renown. But abuses ring throughout the written and visual record, from the horrors of capture to the castration and high mortality which, along with other causes, have left few blacks in many Middle Eastern lands, despite centuries of importing African slaves.Race and Slavery in the Middle East illuminates the legacy of slavery in the region where it lasted longest, from the days of warrior slaves and palace eunuchs and concubines to the final drive for abolition. Illustrated with outstanding reproductions of striking artwork, it casts a new light on this critical part of the world, and on the nature and interrelation of slavery and racial prejudice.
Reviews about Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry (7):
Jube
Professor Lewis in top form as usual. Professor Lewis identifies the reality of the Middle East vs Edward Said's delusions and victimology. Professor Lewis, RIP.
Whitemaster
Highly detailed, well-sourced and nuanced book on how the ancient peoples of the Middle East regarded issues considered highly sensitive today, such as race and how they helped shape and defined relations between various ethnic groups at the time, as well as how mutual perceptions of each other came to impact their world for generations to come.

In essence, Lewis shows us that while many religions and belief systems may in theory call for and advocate racial equality and justice, the reality can at times be far more complex and ultimately present a much more multi-faceted picture.
Rrd
I have been told several times by Muslims that Islam does not allow slavery, and similar assertions can be found on websites aimed at educating infidels about the religion.

It's not easy to understand the motive for such claims. The truth is that, unlike other salvationist, universalizing religions like Buddhism or Christianity, Islam depended on slavery to make conversions.

In "Race and Slavery in the Middle East," Bernard Lewis, as usual, provides many documents to illustrate his point. No honest person can deny that Islam countenanced slavery. Lewis is concerned to trace the evolution of racism along with slavery.

There is good evidence that the pre-Islamic Arabs did not make racial judgments. In this they were like classical, civilized people. The doctrine of Islam is clearly anti-racist. The dogma of equality (not extended, of course, to women) is unquestionable.

Nevertheless, almost as soon as they became Muslims, the Arabs turned racist. Lewis traces this to a general competition in the second and third generations, when the few Arabs who conquered so many were in danger of being swamped by non-Arab Muslims, and, even more, by half-Arabs -- their own children by slave mothers of the conquered groups.

The brief essay (over half the 184 pages are endnotes and translations of documents) accepts -- most of the time -- the claim of 19th century Jewish (!) scholars that slavery under Islam was less "oppressive" than in the Americas or than the official racism in South Africa (still under apartheid) when this book was published in 1990.

Lewis even accepts, absurdly, that being a Muslim slave was an improvement on being a slave of a Greek or Roman. This might be so (or it might not), but it is irrelevant. The early slaves had theretofore been free men, so the kindness of the Muslims in robbing and enslaving them probably did not seem as admirable to them as it does to Professor Lewis.

This is very strange.

The strangeness -- aside from the lapses in judgment by the usually reliable Lewis -- is that Muslim apologists despise Lewis for misrepresenting Islam to Dar-al-Harb. Yet in almost all his many books, Lewis gives the benefit of the close calls to Islam. Never more flagrantly than here.

The evidence that the humanity of Islamic slavery is a hoax is fully evidenced within this book (and elsewhere), even if Lewis ignores his own writing.

To begin with, Lewis admits (as did the Ottoman sultan, under British tutelage) that conditions from capture to sale to an Muslim buyer were horrible. Somehow, this part of the system "does not count," even though for many slaves it constituted a large part of their career as slaves -- for millions, all of it.

Secondly, Lewis marvels a bit that in the Middle East there are no large communities of blacks and mulattoes, as there are in the Americas. This despite the fact that the core lands of Islam imported black slaves for more than three times as long as happened in the Americas. (The Muslims took white slaves, too, until rising western military competence put a stop to it; a minor part of this book.)

Although there were times and places where African slaves in the Americas were worked to death, in general they reproduced at far above replacement rates. In Muslim hands, slaves hardly reproduced at all.

This could not have happened if, in fact, Muslims treated their slaves better than Europeans and Americans did.

It is probably significant of Lewis's concern to lessen the obvious imputations about Muslim behavior that he gives hardly two sentences to the revolt of black slaves in southern Iraq in the 10th century, and not a word about the death toll. No one knows what it was -- Muslim sources are silent or faked -- but historians believe it was probably the biggest slave revolt in history. Nine hundred thousand slaves may have been killed. Comparable to the population at the time, this was a slaughter worse than anything 20th century Germans achieved.

In his final words, Lewis says that his study assumed that the extreme claims on either side -- of the savagery of Islamic slavery or its mildness (he does not consider claims that it did not exist) -- could not be right. But even the evidence of his own book, not to mention widely available evidence elsewhere, shows that he has sugarcoated Islamic slavery.
Wishamac
good
Minha
If Murray Gordon's book called Slavery In the Arab World is #1 on the list, that makes Race and Slavery In the Middle-East #1A. Unlike Gordon's work, this historical book is mostly a short overview on the subject, coming in at only 102 pages. Despite this, it is still light years ahead of the works compiled and edited by Shaun Marmon, titled: Slavery In the Islamic Middle-East. Unlike the multiple essays of that work, Lewis created a work that was consistent from beginning to end. For the most part his methodology was sound, despite a few lapses in providing sources and tables that could have helped bolster his discussions.

The first three chapters of this book: "Slavery", "Race" and "Islam In Arabia" are nothing short of stellar. They alone are worth the price of this book in my opinion. The basis of slavery going back to antiquity is discussed in quite some detail- including things that even I did not previously know about. For instance, on page 11 I read: "Small numbers of slaves were brought from India, China, Southeast Asia, and the Byzantine Empire, most of them specialists and technicians of one kind or another." That was quite an informative sentence that comprised part of an insightful chapter that made me erudite. In the chapter "Race" there is this paragraph that will astound any reader: "The advent of Islam created an entirely new situation in race relations. All the ancient civilizations of the Middle-East and of Asia had been local, or at the most regional. Even the Roman Empire, despite its relatively larger extent, was essentially a mediteranean society. Islam for the first time created a truly universal civilization, extending from Southern Europe to Central Africa, from the Atlantic Ocean to India and China. By conquest and by conversion, the Muslims brought within the bounds of a single imperial system and a common religious culture peoples as diverse as the Chinese, the Indians, the peoples of the Middle-East and North Africa, black Africans, and white Europeans." (P18 "Race").

I first read this book in November 2002. I just finished rereading it an hour ago because it is literally that important and imformative of a read. I recommend this book to all students and scholars of history. Once you pick this book up you will not be able to put it down.

A. Nathaniel Wallace, Jr.
Swift Summer
An excellent tour of historical race relations and subjugation in medieval times.

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